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Dementia: Alarming ratio on affecting Elders of USA, Let’s understand Better.

Dementia Alarming ratio on affecting Elders of USA, Let’s understand Better.
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Dementia

What is Dementia?

 

 Dementia is a phrase that refers to a set of symptoms that impact your memory, reasoning, and social abilities to the point where they interfere with your regular activities. Dementia isn’t caused by a single disease, but it can be caused by a number of them.

 

Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia, but it can be caused by a variety of factors. Memory loss isn’t always a marker of dementia, however, it is generally one of the first symptoms.

Alzheimer’s disease is the most prevalent cause of progressive dementia in older people, but Dementia can also be caused by a variety of other conditions. Some Dementia symptoms may be reversible, depending on the reason.

 

Some dementia patients lose control of their emotions, and their personalities shift. Dementia can range in intensity from the mildest stage, when it is just starting to damage a person’s ability to function, to the most severe level, when the person is completely dependent on others for basic daily activities.

Dementia Affects in USA and Worldwide:

 

According to WHO research, more than 55 million people worldwide suffer from dementia, with approximately 10 million new cases diagnosed each year.

In 2021, an estimated 6.2 million Americans aged 65 and older will have Alzheimer’s disease. Seventy-two percent are 75 years old or older. Alzheimer’s disease affects one out of every nine adults aged 65 and over (11.3 percent).

Dementia is the seventh biggest cause of death worldwide, as well as one of the top causes of disabilities and dependency among older people.

What causes Dementia?

 

Damage to or loss of nerve cells and their connections in the brain causes dementia. Dementia affects people differently and causes distinct symptoms depending on which part of the brain is destroyed.

Dementias are frequently classified according to what they have in common, such as the protein or proteins deposited in the brain or the affected brain region. Some disorders, such as those induced by a reaction to me, appear to be dementias.

What is the difference between Dementia and Alzheimer’s?

 

When most people hear the word “Dementia,” they immediately think of “Alzheimer’s.” In everyday conversation, the two names are frequently used interchangeably, and when a loved one exhibits indications of memory loss, it’s not uncommon for them to add, “I hope it’s not Alzheimer’s.”

What is the burden of Alzheimer’s disease in the United States?

 
  • In the United States, Alzheimer’s disease is one of the top ten leading causes of death.
  • The 6th greatest cause of fatality among adults in the United States.
  • The fifth biggest cause of fatality is those aged 65 and over.
  • Alzheimer’s disease was affected  5.8 million Americans aged 65 and over in 2020. By 2060, this figure is expected to nearly treble, reaching 14 million individuals. 
  • These expenses are expected to rise to between $379 and more than $500 billion per year by 2040. 

 

However, Alzheimer’s is only one type of dementia, which is defined as a deterioration in memory, thinking, and reasoning skills that has a major impact on everyday living. If a loved one is having memory problems, Alzheimer’s disease may be a possibility, but there are four different kinds of dementia to consider: Alzheimer’s, Lewy bodies, Frontotemporal, vascular, and mixed are all possible.

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1.Alzheimer’s

 

Alzheimer’s disease is the most prevalent kind of dementia, accounting for 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative brain illness that causes nerve cell connections to break down and tissue shrinking in regions of the brain that are important for memory skills.

Alzheimer’s disease affects around 5.8 million people in the United States aged 65 and over. Eighty percent of those are 75 or older. Alzheimer’s disease is believed to affect 60-70 percent of the approximately 50 million individuals globally who have dementia.

Early symptoms of the condition include forgetting previous events or discussions. A person with Alzheimer’s disease will acquire significant memory impairment and lose the capacity to carry out daily duties as the disease develops.

Medications may temporarily improve or reduce the development of symptoms. These therapies can occasionally assist persons with Alzheimer’s disease to optimize function and retain independence for a short period may become more diseases and situations can. 

2.Lewy Body Dementia

 

Lewy body dementia (LBD) is a neurological disorder characterized by aberrant deposits of the protein alpha-synuclein in the brain. These deposits, known as Lewy bodies, have an effect on chemicals in the brain, causing alterations that can lead to issues with thinking, movement, behavior, and mood.

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, this kind of dementia accounts for 5 to 10% of all dementia cases. 

According to the Family Caregiver Alliance, Lewy bodies are also prevalent in Parkinson’s disease, and persons with DLB may suffer comparable symptoms, such as tremors and other movement issues. 

Parkinson’s patients are also at significant risk of developing DLB as their condition advances.

Sleep issues, hallucinations, and difficulty keeping focus are other frequent symptoms of DLB.

3.Frontotemporal Dementia

According to Verywell Health, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a kind of dementia that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, which are important for memory, language, judgment, problem-solving, and behavioral and emotional regulation. FTD was formerly considered to be the rarest form of dementia, but according to the Alzheimer’s Association, it currently accounts for 10 to 15% of dementia cases.

Early indicators of FTD include changes in behavior, loss of emotional control, and compulsive behaviors, as the frontal lobe regulates emotion and self-control and encourages us to act in socially acceptable ways. Language issues can be caused by damage to the temporal lobe, therefore alterations in speech patterns are typical in FTD.

4. Vascular Dementia

Many specialists prefer the term “vascular cognitive impairment” (VCI) over “vascular dementia” because it better reflects the idea that vascular thinking alterations can range from minor to severe.

After a stroke that clogs major blood arteries in the brain, vascular dementia causes rapid alterations in cognitive skills. Thinking problems might sometimes start as subtle abnormalities that grow over time as a result of several little strokes or another disorder that affects smaller blood vessels, causing broad damage.

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5. Mixed Dementia

 

When a person has more than one kind of dementia, they are said to have mixed dementia. Alzheimer’s/vascular dementia is the most prevalent kind of mixed dementia, followed by Alzheimer’s/Lewy body dementia. According to the Alzheimer’s Association, one out of every 10 dementia patients exhibits signs of many types of dementia. However, because mixed dementia is seldom diagnosed or discovered until an autopsy is done, the precise number of instances is unclear may be it’s fairly prevalent, according to research, but further research is needed.

These are the most prevalent causes of dementia, however, some more diseases and situations  can cause dementia such as, 

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is a rare, quickly progressive brain disease.

Huntington’s Disease is a hereditary condition that causes nerve cells to break down.

Fluid accumulation in the brain causes normal pressure hydrocephalus.

Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is an uncommon disorder that causes vision loss and is thought to be a variant of Alzheimer’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that affects people. 

Korsakoff Syndrome is a long-term memory problem caused by a deficiency in Vitamin B1.

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Stages of Dementia :

 

Dementia affects people differently depending on the underlying reasons, other medical disorders, and the person’s cognitive functioning before maybe getting ill. There are three stages to understanding the signs and symptoms of dementia.

A person with dementia may be able to live independently in the early stages. They may still be able to drive, work, and interact with others. The early stages of dementia are frequently ignored due to their sluggish onset. The following are examples of common symptoms:

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Early Stages:

 
  • Losing track of time 
  • Getting lost in familiar surroundings
  • Having difficulty finding the appropriate word or name
  • Finding it difficult to do routine duties in social or professional contexts
  • Forgetting something they just read Losing or misplacing items regularly
  • Increasing difficulty in planning or organizing
  • Making decisions with very poor judgment

The middle Stage of Dementia is:

 

 Typically the most severe and can endure for many years.As the person’s dementia worsens, he or she will require a higher level of care. At this point, you may notice that they jumble up words, are frequently frustrated or angry, or act in unexpected ways, like refusing to bathe. Damage to the brain can make it difficult for people to express themselves and go about their daily lives.

The signs and symptoms become clearer and may include:

  • Not being able to recall important details such as their residence, phone number, high school, and so on.
  • They are unsure about where they are or what day it is.
  • Changing sleep habits, such as sleeping during the day and becoming restless at night
  • Changes in personality and behavior, such as paranoia, delusions, and compulsive, repetitive behavior such as hand-wringing
  • Forgetting about recent events and people’s names
  • Growing confused at home, 
  • Having increased difficulties communicating, 
  • Need assistance with personal care, 
  • Experiencing behavioral changes such as wandering and repetitive questioning.

Critical Stage: 

 

People with dementia lose their ability to engage in the world, hold conversations, and control their muscles as they move to the end-stage. Even if they can still talk, communicating and expressing thoughts becomes difficult – even for something as simple as pain. Their memory and cognitive abilities continue to deteriorate, and you may notice dramatic personality changes or the complete disappearance of personality.

  • Becoming oblivious to time and location, 
  • Having difficulties recognizing relatives and friends, 
  • And require more assistance with self-care
  • Having trouble walking, sitting, and swallowing, as well as escalating and perhaps aggressive behavior.
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Prevention of Dementia

 

Although age is the most powerful known risk factor for dementia, it is not an unavoidable result of biological aging. Furthermore, dementia does not just affect the elderly; young onset dementia (defined as the development of symptoms before the age of 65) accounts for up to 9% of cases. 

Physical activity, not smoking, avoiding dangerous alcohol use, regulating weight, eating a nutritious diet, and keeping good blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels have all been shown in studies to minimize the incidence of cognitive decline and dementia. 

Cure for Dementia

 

Sadly, there is no medicine available to cure dementia completely at the moment. At present, anti-dementia drugs and disease-modifying therapies have shown little success and have mostly been designated for Alzheimer’s disease, even though multiple novel treatments are being examined in various phases of clinical trials.

Furthermore, much can be done to help and enhance the lives of persons living with dementia, as well as their caregivers and family. The following are the primary aims of dementia care:

  • An early diagnosis to promote timely and effective care
  • Improving physical health, intellect, activity, and overall well-being
  • Detection and treatment of associated physical disease
  • Recognizing and managing behavioral changes
  • Giving caretakers information and long-term support.

     

Let’s all ensure providing our elders, proper Healthy food, Good Environment, and Keeping them Active and Happy.  Having elders at home is like having a godly thing at home.

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